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This is a research carried out as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master's of Science in Forestry,Tribhuvan University,Institute of Forestry,Pokhara,Nepal.This is the first reserch in the Wildlife Reserve related with diet and habitat mapping which acts as the baseline information for the conservation of the species.The reserch also shows the huge potentiality of the reserve for the high number of tiger in future.
As an obligate predator of large ungulates, the tiger (Panther tigris tigris) is an ideal umbrella species for protection of large tracts of forest. The current global tiger population is in precarious state since it is believed to compromise only 5% of what was there just a century ago and vanishing of tiger from as much as 40% of their habitat in just 10 years period. In Nepal, the distribution of tiger is limited to flat lands of Terai within fragmented pockets of PAs. While the protection outside PAs is out of reach, there is significant human pressure in the PAs. Nepal holds 55 of global tiger population with the number of 155 adult tiger. Shukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve is considered as one of the potential habitat for both tiger and prey density. Even in the area of 52km2, high ungulate biomass was observed. Reduction in pressure such as cattle grazing and human disturbance is required before ungulate and tiger can revive to their potential. More strict conservation measure is required from reserve side for long time survival of the species.
The research aimed at determining the changes of habitat in ANP, Oryx population trend, habitat selection and delineation of its suitable habitat. Vegetation change detection in ANP was done by using remote sensing and GIS applications. Four habitat categories were used for habitat selections which include vegetation type, ground cover, slope and distance from water. The trends of Oryx population and vegetation change including other factors were correlated. The result of vegetation change has showed that there is a significant change in most vegetation types. Grassland and wooded grassland with short grass cover in flat slopes between 3 – 6kms away from water is the most preferred habitat for Oryx in ANP. Oryx population has significantly declined between the years 1966 to 2011 and its range has highly decreased. Based on habitat suitability analysis, the current available habitat for Oryx can be substantially increased by interventions of different alternatives. It was recommended that, proper habitat management and sufficient protection are required to maintain the declining Oryx population and grassland habitats.
The book is about genetic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium and marker-trait association in bread wheat. Genetic diversity providing the basic substrate for evolution is very important for the long-standing survival of species and their ability to adapt to ever-changing environments. Therefore, a comprehensive detail about data analysis, statistical measures and their interpretations to assess and understand the implications of genetic diversity has been included. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis have also been discussed. Mapping genes underlying a specific trait offers an opportunity for plant breeders to apply marker assisted selection(MAS). Two most commonly used QTL-mapping approaches have been compared for their comparative pros and cons. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium have been discussed regarding their implications for marker-trait associations. The book will be useful for under and post graduate students to plan, conduct and write research projects on genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping in plants.
The avian order Galliformes include turkeys, grouse, fowls, quails, and pheasants. These constitute 70 genera and 284 species worldwide. These also include 17 species of Indian pheasants which are the most spectacular birds of the world constituting one-third of the global total of 50 pheasant species. The study was conducted in Sariska Tiger Reserve which is located in the Aravalli hills of Rajasthan. It is the third largest protected area among the 93 protected areas in India’s semi arid region situated in the semi arid bio - geographic zone of India. Seven species of galliformes are reported from the region out of which present study reports the abundance estimation of five species encountered during February to May 2009. Line transects and DISTANCE 6.0 was used to estimate the encounter rates whereas, PC-ord, TWINSPAN & Non Metric Multidimentional Scaling (NMDS) was used to determine the extent of habitat use by the target species. The present study suggests undertaking possible conservation measures to protect the population status of galliformes in Sariska Tiger Reserve.
Flowers are associated with mankind from the dawn of civilization. Flower and ornamental plants possess the greatest gift for satisfying the basic human desire for the establishment of our link with nature. After conducting the survey it is observed that there is the dominance of marginal and small farmers in the study area. Flower cultivation is found to be a good source for gainful employment of family labour and a regular source of income to family.
Nepal is one of the major countries for Tiger habitat. Now, trend of tiger population is on declining trend due to array of causes such as; low abundance of prey base, habitat fragmentation, habitat degradation, habitat alteration, illegal poaching, hunting etc. So this study was made to know the existent setting for the indication of Tiger population by prey base in western Nepal. Habitat wise Abundance and distribution of Tiger prey base has been illustrated in this book, similarly some threats are described present in corridor area which may imitate the issue of landscape level conservation. Hence, this book is of high interest to all environment related stake holders who are interested in gaining the deep understanding of Tiger, relating it with prey base; especially for Wildlife Manager, Biologist, Ecologist, Forester and Environmentalist too.
The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most important and fast growing sectors in the world. By the end of year 2010, the global pharmaceutical industry is estimated to grow to $842 billion. The industry is technologically sophisticated and characterised by highly risky and lengthy processes, intense competition and large research and development expenditures. The key process of the pharmaceutical industry constitutes of the drug discovery and development process which takes nearly 10 to 15 years for development from the earliest stage in discovery to the time it is made available for use to the patients and costs an average of $800 million. Despite successfully translating discoveries into successful products, the process is plagued by increasing number of uncertainties which leads to an increased developmental time cycles. This delays the product’s entry into the market thereby causing heavy losses to the pharmaceutical industry. This research presents techniques that enable pharmaceutical firms to reduce uncertainties as well as tackle the problem of time to market with a view to improving the product quality thereby increasing their profits significantly.
This book comprises of a comparative assessment of physico-chemical, biological characteristics of two soil types of West Bengal, India.The book comprises of six chapters with in depth analysis of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of two soil types. The book is also enriched with detailed methodology of soil analysis along with their interpretation.This book would be an comprehensive treatise for understanding the perview of soil analysis.
This study deals with the analysis and mapping of soil salinity levels in Metehara sugarcane estate irrigation farm. An attempt was made to identify salt affected areas by visual interpretation using both true and false colour composite. From the supervised classification, 726 ha area was mapped as highly saline. However, the result obtained from NDSI was not only in area-wise, but also the level of salinity as highly saline, moderately and slightly saline, determined based on the reflectance value. Out of the total area, 6% was mapped as highly saline. A regression analysis between EC values of small areas confined only in Metehara Sugarcane estate and the corresponding reflectance value in the NDSI image offer a polynomial relation of order two. The empirical model that obtained from the regression analysis was used to derive a salinity map and estimate EC level. The spatial distribution of salt affected area derived from NDSI and model were of similar pattern but of different extent. In overlay salinity model, four classes have been identified with varying degree of salinity.
This research monograph attempts to find out the correlates of inter district migration in West Bengal during the post reform period and also examines whether there has been any change in the relative significance of the explanatory factors of each kind of migration over the period of one decade of economic reform. By applying Principal Component Analysis and ordinary least square with data from secondary sources (Census reports, Statistical Abstracts, District Statistical Handbooks etc) this study locates some major determinants in the process of rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-rural and urban-urban migration by the districts in West Bengal. For each type of migration, a neo-classical gross migration function is fitted by using the rate of migration as dependent variable. For rural-rural migration, the ‘distances between districts’, ‘wage-differential’, ‘cropping intensities of the source districts’, ‘differences between the percentage shares of agricultural workers in rural workers of the source districts and those of destination districts’, ‘differences between the areas under foodgrain cultivation of the destination districts are the significant explanatory factors.
Land cover Mapping is one of the main applications of remote sensing data analysis. The developments in Radar polarimetry and spatial resolution of remote sensors have facilitated information extraction from remote sensing data. The author provides an account of land cover information extraction from optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The specific areas addressed are: • Investigating the effect of different polarisations of SAR data on the accuracy of derived land cover information. • Using Object based image classification approaches to analyse high resolution SAR data • Investigating the potential of image fusion of optical and SAR data for improved land cover identification and mapping. This book provides a state of the art in advances of remote sensing image processing techniques.
Bangladesh has records of population data for more than 100 years. With the aid of GIS and other analyzing tools such as shift analysis, these data can depict the trend and pattern of the regional disparity of population of Bangladesh. The study also shows that the development parameters such as access to safe water, Sanitation Facility, Electricity Facility etc. collected in the Population censuses can help us to find out the causes behind the regional disparity of Population. To identify the causes of regional disparity and how to make proper policy for the development of rural Bangladesh several other population characteristics such as age-sex composition are described in this book. The spatio-temporal growth of literacy rate is described here and several mapping techniques are taken under consideration for policy making of the development of literacy rate in the country. The huge influx of population in the urban centers can be easily recognized. The trend and pattern of migration flow can provide us a general picture of push factors and pull factors which may guide the planners while offering regional planning rather than rigorous national planning.
Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary,M.P., India is the most promising location to re-establish a free ranging population of critically endangered Asiatic Lions from Gir National Park, India where they are highly over-populated. In preparation for reintroduction of Lions, all the human settlements from the Sanctuary area have been relocated and the sanctuary was made free from human settlements and domesticated livestock. Frequent monitoring and assessment of sanctuary's landcover and wild animals habitat is necessary for immediate appropriate measurements which are very costly and time consuming. This book,therefore addresses the advanced technology and methods of Remote Sensing & GIS to the assessment and conservation of biodiversity,habitat characteristics and species population of the sanctuary in a very cost-effective ways.The methods provided are very simpler and cost effective and will provide light to wildlife researchers and scholars interested in biodiversity conservation.
The book elucidates various statistical models and methods used for the analysis of QTL with illustrated examples, application of QTL in modern plant breeding, development of mapping population for QTL analysis, QTL mapping and brief overview of mapping population.