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Diet selection is an important requirement for evaluating the effects of herbivores on their environments; this would increase understanding of plant–herbivore interactions and help to achieve optimal management strategies and profitable animal performance. The development of a sound understanding of diet selection will be a key to improving the management of pastures. Diet selection describes the decisions animals make with regard to the plant material (plant parts, plant species and patches) they choose. The aim of this book was to investigate how plants characteristics, chemistry and the nutritive value are relate to the diet selection patterns.
This monograph is a very timely publication as it highlights the very important issue of Food Quality and Safety especially for the developing countries plagued by food shortages, food contamination and nutritional deficiencies. Research findings reveal a strong possibility of providing safe and nutritious food from pesticide contaminated legumes using simple domestic processing techniques. Infact this study provides valuable insights into the complex issue of food quality and safety. Germination can serve as a simple technique for naturally fortifying legumes with essential minerals and vitamins. Presence of pesticide residues may also hamper the bioavailability and assimilation of micronutrients by human body. Therefore in depth investigation on effect of different pesticides commonly used in grain storage systems on food safety and bioavailability of micronutrients is an important research area. In view of contamination of food resulting in numerous health problems, dissipation of pesticide through processing techniques would prove a boon during the transient phase of agriculture system moving towards sustainable agriculture.
The nutritive value of sweet potato tuber meal (SPM) and sweet potato tops (SPT) as replacement for maize and wheat bran respectively was evaluated. The economy of production of pullet chicks revealed that partially replaced maize diet appeared to be more economically efficient, thereby justifying the replacement. The conducted study encourages such replacement and will contribute to poultry management.
This book is concerned with grain substitution by cheaper unconventional feed ingredients to formulate economic diet. Poultry farmers are facing problems in formulating ration for higher and fluctuated price of conventional and imported feed ingredients with variable quality and non availability. The problem is severe with quails as they need diet having higher protein per cent. As a part of formulating economic poultry ration replacing grains by parboiled rice polish (PRP) and different additives are going on at Bangladesh Agricultural University. PRP appears to be a good substitute of grains. Many researches were adapted to assess the nutritive value of PRP and its potentiality to replace the grains. Abundant use of PRP in lieu of grains could not provide an ideal ration for the presence of phytate. Many scientists recommended to use phytase enzyme to inactivate phytate and thus improve growth and meat yield. Feed millers, poultry farmers and others engaged with poultry operation may accept this book. This book is highlighted the concepts, definition, classification, nutritive value, chemical composition of rice polish, PRP and phytase and their effects on growth and meat yield.
This book contains 7 chapters.Chapter 1 concern with the introduction. chapter 2 showing the lieterature review. Chapter 3 is an experiment conducted to evaluate the effect of including different levels of raw seeds on broiler performance,carcass characteristics and plasma constituents. Chapter 4 examined the effect of processed cowpea by roasting and enzymes addition to seeds in attempt to reduced the anti nutritional factors that present in cowpea seeds on performance , carcass characteristics and plasma constituents of broiler chickens.Chapter 5 is an experiment in which we included different levels of cowpea seeds in layers diets to study their effects on layers performance, internal and external egg characteristics. Chapter 6 is an experiment in which we processed the seeds by roasting or enzymes addition and studied the effect on layers performance and egg characteristics. Chapter 7 is a general discussion
Feeds for dairy cows are classified into forages, concentrates (energy and protein feeds) and minerals and vitamin supplements. Classifying feeds is not as important as knowing which feeds are available, their nutritive value, and the factors that affect their utilization in a ration. The small dairy farmers of developing countries have limited resources available for feeding to their ruminant livestock. They do not have the luxury of being able to select the basal diet but use whatever is available at no or low cost. To establish optimum feeding system for livestock it is necessary to identify the available feed resources, the nutritive values of feeds including nutrient contents and feed digestibility to provide the animal with the necessary nutrients as per its requirement. Nutrition can be regarded as one of the most important sources of variation in the yield and composition of milk, but climatic conditions and seasonal variation and regional differences can also play an important role. Determination of milk chemical composition, microbial quality of milk products from small-scale farmers is also very important for the marketability and thus development of dairy industry.
Milk is one of the essential product in human diet, rich in nutritive components. Goat milk is of great economic concern to producers, manufacturers and consumers. The quality of milk is closely related to its physiochemical and biological composition. Both groups were comprised of eight samples each. Milk samples were collected and filtered. Filtrate of all samples were stored at -4°C in small aliquots. Spectrophotometer was used to measure total oxidant and total antioxidant status, thiocyanate, lipase activity and lactoperoxidase activity. Kit method was used to measure thyroid level, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase. Proximate analysis was done to compare the composition of goat milk during different stages of lactation. From present study it is concluded that parturition affect enzymatic activities and hormonal concentration in milk. It also affects oxidant and antioxidant level of milk on different stages. But there is no affect of parturition on nutritional value of milk. It remains unchanged after fifteen days and three months of parturition.
The studies reported here were undertaken to investigate the characteristics of the degradation of two species of fresh forages in ruminants, i.e. lucerne (a legume) and ryegrass (a grass). A review of the literature was done to determine current understanding of the degradation of forage protein by plant and microbial proteases in the rumen. Knowledge of degradability of fresh forages was found to be limited and so three studies were undertaken using forages labelled with 15N so that the end-products of forage protein degradation could be identified and their kinetics determined. The 15N-labelled forage was readily produced by growing the plants in pots watered with a solution of 15NH415NO3. Rumen degradability of fresh and frozen-thawed lucerne and ryegrass was evaluated using in vitro, in situ and in vivo techniques. Therefore, 15N-labelled plant materials can be used to increase the power of in vitro and in situ studies. When used with suitable modelling techniques, in vivo experiments in which animals ingest the forage provide the only means of generating reliable information about the kinetics of ruminal digestion of freshly harvested forages in the rumen.
Yogurt is a cultured, semisolid and curdled food product. It is made from fermented milk by a bacterium. Whereas, fruit yogurts are the milk products that are fermented by special cultures of lacto-bacteria. The consistency of fruit yogurts are jelly like and containing different types of fruits as additives and flavor. Four samples, in three replicates of fruit yogurt and fruit curd was prpared. The strwaberries were used to made fruit yogurt and curd. The purpose of the study was to examine the nutritional quality by proximate analysis and find out microbiological status by total bacterial and plate count of fruit yogurt and fruit curd. The variation in nutritive value and microbiological load among fresh and stored fruit yogurt were also evaluated. The resulting data had been subjected to analysis of variance.Significant results will be subjected and compared in this book.
Contractors play an important role in any construction project. Perhaps the most important decision is the selection of a contractor by the employer prior to the implementation of the project. Contractor selection process is associated with increased risk for employers. High Impact of contractor on cost, time and the quality of the project. In this study, for contractor selection unlike the conventional methods that are based on lowest value suggested for the project implementation, the selection of a contractor is based on the contractor's ability to do the project. The potential contractors using the contractor eligibility bylaw. In this paper, combination of the risk management process and fuzzy logic, have been used to identify and assess the risks of the contractors. After identifying risk the factors and the evaluated using AHP fuzzy, It is suggested that after obtaining weight, the fuzzy criteria and competence score for each contractor is obtained. Finally, very few qualified contractors will implement the project. This applied model can help the employers, till the implementation of the project by the contractor would face little risk.
Crop residues have high percentages of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a macromolecular complex and this intricate association makes a barrier to these lignocelluloses utilization by the livestock. Hence, they have poor digestibility, low in protein and palatability. When the soil fungi are employed for the biodelignification, the nutritive value of the straw improved remarkably but the voluntary intake of the treated straw is very low. Various types of edible white-rot fungi available in the market are used for biodelignification of straws. P.ostreatus is found to degrade about 18% of lignin, 20% of cellulose and 40% of hemicelluloses with only 10% loss in the dry matter of the straw. As a result the IVDMD of the straw improved by 60% and the protein percentage by 10 folds. The effect of various inorganic and organic feed additives on the nutritive value of the straw and delignification ability of the organism emphasized that the nutritive value of the treated straw has tremendously increased by the combined effect of chemical and fungal treatments.Feed formulations are made using fungal treated straw, cereals, mill byproducts and oil cakes in proper proportions.
Tuna, known as the ‘Chicken of Sea’ have red and white flesh in their bodies which taste differently. Red and White meat of Little Tunny (Euthynnus affinis) and Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), widely available cheap tuna species in the food market were subjected to biochemical analysis to estimate the food value. K.pelamis have more nutritive value than E.affinis, but both species can provide satisfactory amount of nutrients in diet including a reasonable amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Red meat was found out to be equally nutritious as white meat. Red and white meat of both K.pelamis and E.affinis can be recommended in diet as excellent nutrient source.
Rice is the second largest cereal crop produced on the world. Even though rice farming is emerged recently in Ethiopia, it is being well expanding in almost all regions. It is estimated that approximately one kg of straw is produced for each kg of grain harvested. Rice straw is among the crop residue that is widely used for feeding livestock’s all over the world despite its low nutritive value & low digestibility (low CP, low available mineral & vitamin content). However Urea treatment can dramatically improve the nutritive value & digestibility of rice straw. This book gives detailed practical information on the impact urea treatment on the nutritive value & digestibility rice straw as well as its significance effect on the live weight gain & carcass characteristics of lambs.
Contractor evaluation is a crucial part of the project management cycle and it is related to risk and risk management. One of the most main areas in the construction industry is the bidding process. The low-bid method fails to provide the public interest due to the issue that the lowest offer might not result in the lowest overall cost to the public. This research attempts to solve the contractor selection problem using three versions of Technique of ranking Preferences by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and compares their relative performance for two construction contractor’s selection problem. The proposed methodological tool can aid the manager in the modeling and selection of suitable contractor according to a set of predefined criteria in order to enhance the long-term performance of projects. Therefore after introducing the theoretical background, two examples are cited to demonstrate and validate the effectiveness and flexibility of these three versions of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches. The results showed TOPSIS can be a good choice for contractor selection problems especially when there are a lot of alternatives.
An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of plantain, Bio-Sel-E and commercial broiler diet on the growth performance, feed conversion ratio, performance index and carcass yield of broiler. The highest (P